🎰 Native American gaming - Wikipedia

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), authors William Evans and Julie Topoleski summarize the history of Indian casinos over the last 20 years and examine their effect on employment, poverty.


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Native American gaming comprises casinos, bingo halls, and other gambling operations on 1 History. Cabazon Band, ; Indian Gaming Regulatory Act; legislation Main article: Impact of Native American gaming.


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Keywords: Gambling, Alcohol use, Native Americans, United States Survey to find out more about being Native American, such as Native American history.


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Native American gaming industry and possibilities the future may hold for America's indigenous The story of the American Indians is, without a doubt, one of survival. remain far beyond the scope and focus of any single journal article. Still.


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Native American gaming comprises casinos, bingo halls, and other gambling operations on 1 History. Cabazon Band, ; Indian Gaming Regulatory Act; legislation Main article: Impact of Native American gaming.


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An examination of official tribal websites in tribal history, native language, employment.


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), authors William Evans and Julie Topoleski summarize the history of Indian casinos over the last 20 years and examine their effect on employment, poverty.


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"Pima Indian Stick Game", which includes game pieces and rules; Brochures from Indian casinos; Newspaper articles on Indian Gaming; Essays.


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This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Economics Departments conditions on these reservations that subsequently introduced tribal gaming, even now become the wealthiest Indian Tribe in the history of North America.


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This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Economics Departments conditions on these reservations that subsequently introduced tribal gaming, even now become the wealthiest Indian Tribe in the history of North America.


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Tribes can sometimes incorporate new lands in more viable locations, but most attempts to place casinos closer to potential customers have met with resistance. Indian gaming operations in the U. Most reservations are in remote areas, owing partially to the sordid history of relations between the various tribes and the U. The cash payouts that some tribal governments have disbursed to tribe members have been shown to boost school attendance and degree attainment in the poorest households. Congress responded by passing the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of , which established a regulatory framework and oversight for these operations that were sprouting up across the country. In The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and Its Effects on American Indian Economic Development PDF , authors Randall Akee , Katherine Spilde , and Jonathan Taylor recount the mostly disappointing history of economic development in Indian Country prior to widespread reassertions of tribal self-governance, such as gaming, and survey the evidence on the impact of Indian gaming on tribal governments and populations. Indian gaming is also associated with markers of rising quality of life on the reservation. During that time, Indian gaming has continually attracted controversy, but is also credited with helping many tribes achieve fiscal independence and with reversing the "brain drain" problem afflicting many reservations. The opposition campaign was backed in part by nearby tribes that would have found themselves in direct competition with the new casino. The act restricted Indian gaming to reservation or tribal trust lands. The most dependable source of capital for such projects was federal grants, but those were subject to political whims and grant-making trends, and were not generally driven by market demand. Gaming helped jumpstart economic development in Indian Country, but tribal governments still need to diversify their economies and defend tribal budgets. External investors were wary about investing in an untested legal environment with unfamiliar or non-existent commercial codes and courts. Some have also reinvested revenues in new Indian-owned commercial ventures that previously lacked start-up capital. It should be noted that for all the good news coming from Indian Country since the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of , the accumulated economic and social deficits on reservations are [still very large] Given that there is no apparent successor to gaming waiting in the wings for Indian Country, it will remain critical for tribal policymakers to get other aspects of development right. The authors also highlight the tendency of some tribes to expel some members; because many smaller tribes distribute a portion of gaming revenues equally to all enrollees, some factions have incentive to cull membership rolls and increase payouts for the remaining members. On many reservations, inheritance rules led to heavily subdivided plots of land that made progress difficult for developers looking to build a mall or industrial park. Indian gaming is permitted only on tribal trust lands, so the geographic distribution of this industry is skewed by the long history of Indian policy. Hopefully the new tribal institutions and administrative expertise that have grown up around the Indian gaming economy will help achieve these goals. Census Bureau. Most Indian gaming happens far from population centers. These operations were placed on a much firmer legal footing with a Supreme Court ruling that states could could not ban gambling on tribal lands. Akee et al.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Commercial gambling in the U. In the decades before the rise of Indian gaming, tribal governments were often at a loss for investment capital for new commercial ventures on reservation land. The agreement would have permitted the tribe to build a casino on a site 40 miles from their reservation, closer to population centers and a major state highway. Despite these obstacles, over gaming operations have been established as of , and revenues from gaming operations have dramatically increased the resources of many tribal governments. Various tribes have devoted newfound funds to initiatives ranging from college scholarships to drug rehabilitation to foster care services to endangered species management. Even with recent gains, incomes for most American Indians living on tribal lands still lag far behind national averages, and as others have pointed out, native populations still suffer from widespread social ills, including shockingly high rates of sexual violence , poor access to health care facilities and jobs, and inadequate law enforcement. As a consequence, these investments tended not to make much economic sense or were made at inopportune times and places; many of the resulting buildings remain underutilized and some have been abandoned entirely. Tribal leaders began turning to gaming in the late s, but state governments often intervened with lawsuits, injunctions, and police raids. An article in the latest issue of the Journal of Economic Perspectives provides an assessment of this history, and its economic impact on the hundreds of thousands of American Indians living on tribal lands in the U. Research shows that casino operations are correlated with declines in obesity, smoking, and heavy drinking, and increases in employment. The authors end on a note of caution. Of course, gaming operations have also sparked controversy on many reservations, often stemming from disagreements about how to share revenues or control of the gaming facilities themselves in one case, an armed standoff between rival factions forced the closing of a casino in California. In one telling example, California voters passed a ballot measure in that nullified a compact between the state of California and the Northfork Mono Indians.